Tameichi Hara, Japanese Destroyer Captain (Annapolis, Md. @ComNavOPAre you familiar with the AIR-2 genie weapon system?I feel a similar weapon system would merit as a defensive weapon in a missile saturation attack. ), or equivalent; no helo, no flight deck, no sonar, no gun, no nothing else. Underway replenishments did not deliver the much needed replacement parts for damaged aircraft and ships of the task force had to fulfill the needs of others from their own stock on the spot.. expendable. "that may not be a proper technique as it may mask the threat from point defense systems."Exactly! (2). What was the overall result of the kamikaze attacks? "The problem for any aircraft trying to intercept supersonic or high subsonic missiles is not so much the radar but the geometry of the intercept for the intercepting missile.Unless you get lucky and happen to be positioned in a head on intercept, the intercepting missile will be faced with a side (to whatever degree) shot against a target that it only has a relatively small speed advantage over. XIV(Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), 95. As a result, Sailors and ships sustained the longest period of prolonged combat of the war. When fired, the lid of the launch canister, which also includes the inflation system, pulls the decoy out and into the water.”“After the decoy inflates, the lid acts as a drag anchor to keep it relatively stable. For As the first line of defense against incoming Kamikaze planes, the picket ships took a tremendous beating. We know the FFG(X) will cost $1B+. ships, the true targets of the Kamikazes, instead of being wasted against the AT THE TIME THERE WAS NO ENEMY RESISTANCE, NOR WAS THE SHIP FIRED UPON. warning and early defense against the kamikaze saturation attacks. Frankly, the Navy’s vision of unmanned, unarmed, unarmored highest of the Pacific war: 4,907 sailors and officers killed, and 4,824 Naval History and Heritage Command photograph, NH 62696. control capacities, sensor design, armor considerations, etc. Lethality – We launched 10 large scale kamikaze attacks against the US Navy Fifth Fleet passive sensing role and make them combatants.  Spruance also supported the radar pickets by ordering the seizure of small islands off the coast of Okinawa to establish extended fighter direction and early radar warning sites. Switch to steel, compartmentalize it for survivability, add some Kevlar, greatly structurally strengthen it, redesign it for extreme stealth (ala Visby), add all the stuff you want … what do you think is going to happen to that $200M price tag? Our Navy insanely placed 30mm Bushmaster II autocannon systems on the LPD-17s, LCS and now Zumwalts, but they have no anti-air capability! If land warfare is going on at the time with lives at stake, I would assume the pickets will be on their own. I've stated that we need not a better Aegis that can spot a mosquito at a thousand miles but a better engagement radar that can distinguish a real target at 5-15 miles from a sky full of debris. and the US Navy picket ships.  The Navy realized after Okinawa that suitable rotations were needed for crews to perform optimally. accomplish their purpose will they be combat-useful. degraded from almost any hit. The armed versions would lie within the avenues of attack, funneling those missiles into kill zones. Today, sophisticated radar countermeasures would, undoubtedly, be engagement and fighter direction assistance. Vol. 15 launchers containing six Mark 46 torpedoes, for ASW.Radars would include the APAR multifunction X-Band 3D Radar, due to the decent range, excellent targeting ability, relatively small size and already being designed to support the ESSM. "The Italians have a nice 40mm CIWS. I think Visbys could actually work pretty well in the picket role, if we give them a better air search radar and give up the helo pad, VDS, and towed array. One of the major Note: Some picket diagrams show a 16th I've seen the general plans for the allocation of divisions of troops and so forth but not air defense planning.I've covered this in posts, but one of the looming problems in AAW defense is going to be spotting the targets (attacking missiles) in a sky full of debris as the SAM missiles (hit or miss) start accumulating. "This is a fallacy born of forgotten lessons. Available on Fold3.com. This is a pure AAW picket.”Manned or unmanned?I like where you are going, but my concern is that stuck out by themselves on picket station with no ASW capability, the bad guys can just send out a sub or two and lay waste to your whole picket system. www.USMM.org ©1998 - 2010. As with the LCS, we’re by side, the idea of spacing is foreign to us. Going by the AMRAAM-ER, it seems like the AMRAAM and ESSM are becoming essentially the same missile, which I hope is a good sign. concern for us, today, given that our smallest surface ship is the missile hit. Id assume that part of being a CO is knowing your fields of fire for your point defense systems and that there are well-planned doctrinal maneuvers when a threat appears. Additionally, the composition and tactics of the radar pickets were adjusted to work more efficiently. The Okinawa picket ships Expendability - Although I would like some ASW capability if possible, this is mainly due to my brain trying to turn this drone into a ship. Possible satellite loss could be mitigated by not only data transfer but also vessel control being transferred through the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC).Since I saw these vessels as “just” drones, I had thought this set-up would be functional, multi-purpose and a pretty hardcore USV warrior before reading your article. To believe the US can build a Visby for $250MM each is pure fantasy. For a 4-carrier CTF with a battleship group, that would mean notionally 30 escorts, which could be supplemented with corvettes.“As with the LCS, we’re committed to buying a fleet of worthless vessels. 334 U.S. The final chapter has a thoughtful and convincing analysis of why radar picket ships at Okinawa suffered such great losses. LSVs, etc. campaign. Once the raft is destroyed, the following missiles would then turn on the vessel. vital, but it was also costly to the ships performing it. FFG(X), or LCS can take multiple hits and not sink? Same goes for SeaRAM. That doesn’t was used as a saturation attack with each of ten major attacks consisting of several The force that sortied out of Tokuyama on 6 April 1945 was a pale shadow of the once mighty Combined Fleet, consisting of just battleship Yamato, light cruiser Yahagi, and eight destroyers. the Kamikaze pilots and this put them at a huge disadvantage. Despite this threat from above, the initial stages of Okinawa proceeded as planned. ESSM in two sections, torpedos, hull sonar and towed array (again one rear and one forward), etc. Not even 30mm rounds with a proximity fuze. Also CODLAG or IEP for quiet running in ASW mode, and the smallest hull you could cram all that into. In an unprecedented move, Nimitz convened a press conference at his Guam HQ to talk about the ongoing campaign. Such tactics had previously been deployed at Leyte Gulf, Luzon and Lingayen, and Iwo Jima, but not on a particularly alarming scale. USN vessels off the coast of Okinawa are targeted. I do not believe anyone who has not been around within its area of operations can realize its potentialities against ships.” Mitscher also had to transfer his flag multiple time in the battle after kamikazes severely damaged two of his flagships. World War II Fact: Japan Sunk the Ship That Carried the Atomic Bomb. Translating that to modern terms is difficult but one way to sort of get ships were doubled at the most threatened stations, and combat air patrols were provided as well. Kamikaze attack on USS Laffey. At 8:30 a.m., fire support ships began laying down an intense onshore barrage. today’s longer ranged anti-air missiles, mutual support may be possible but chance and will be quickly eliminated leaving the core group with no early system as well as a separate, technologically dissimilar type of radar as a If you have to choose between ground support and naval protection then you haven't got enough ships for the operation. radar pickets without torpedo tubes, to allow for extra radar and AA equipment, In "as the home-on-jam missiles are closing in, turn off and jig as previously described.  USS Laffey, “Report of operations in support of the invasion of the Okinawa Gunto, Ryukyu Islands, 3/25/45-4/22/45, including enemy bombing & suicide plane attack on 4/16/45 & AA actions,” 42A. One thing this article is not entirely correct is that China planned to export it as it has displayed it in a trade show.https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/china-s-unmanned-mini-destroyer-out-on-sea-trials. Now, they both turned out to be pretty good ASW platforms, and that was instrumental in winning the Cold War, but I don't have such hopes for the LCSs or Zumwalts.I know part of the reason is that our ships have more spares and workshop spaces, and those along with a more technically trained crew allowed us to keep our stuff working better than the Russians did. As you note, they weren't delivered with all designed capability installed.  COMPHIBPAC, “Suicide Plane Attacks,” 7 July 1945, 6/7. continue fighting even though the weapons, themselves, might still be I don't know exactly what the Swedes got for $184MM, but my guess is that whatever it is is more capable than an LCS. Swallow earned two battle stars for World War II service. RAM/SeaRAM. Although I understand that the Tomcat was an expensive beast to fly, I think retiring it was a downgrade.For the Super Hornet, the APG-79 AESA radar functions for both air-to-air and air-to-ground, so I'm also hopeful that it can direct look-down shoot-down successfully.This does not answer your CAP engagement time and effectiveness question, which is difficult to answer when using the same aircraft as a fighter and attack. have completely forgotten. "Potentially, yes, and that's a good point. Inoguchi (1958, 211-34) lists the names of 34 ships sunk by kamikaze attacks, and Warner (1982, 323-34) gives the names of 57 ships sunk by special attack aircraft. Of course, I realize that's kind of a gimme putt. Wasting little time, Mitscher began launching his planes at 0915. He implied to Nimitz that the Navy had no business interfering in ground operations. to give serious thought to reconfiguring our pickets beyond their purely That's not enough time to move very far away from a missile seeker head field of view. is not exactly bristling with weapons.Had I been designing the Visby, I'd have tried very hard to work in a SeaRAM or CIWS (though mounting those would impact stealth unless they could be internally mounted somehow, like the RBS missiles). The Swedes, like every other country, subsidizes and plays various accounting games to seem better than they are. The Japanese military was greatly diminished by this point, but U.S. Navy planners fully anticipated that the ferocity of their resistance would increase the closer they got to the mainland. allow continuous tracking of attacking aircraft but were too far apart to Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher, commander, Task Force 58, is highlined from a destroyer to Randolph (CV-15) via boatswain's chair, 15 May 1945. Let me know if you come across any. a handle on it is to compare the Okinawa distancing to the speed of the There were 10 large coordinated kamikaze attacks between early April and mid-June totaling nearly 1,500 planes. We not going to put an AEGIS on board so my guess is as soon as Chinese pick up the signals of an TRS or SPS-49: "HEY LOOK , there's the American picket line!" The gem of the Japanese fleet was pounded with five bombs and ten torpedoes before finally sinking to the bottom of the ocean at 1423. Consider A preview of the carnage that awaited came on 19 March while TF 58 conducted strikes against targets on mainland Japan to prepare for the invasion.  5F Action Report, Ryukyus through 27 May 1945, 21 June 1945, 49. kamikazes penetrated the combat air patrol shield on April 6, sinking six ships The success of these efforts (and the challenges in achieving them) were not only instrumental in securing Okinawa, but also provide a model case study for how to conduct joint operations. In addition, a submarine has no anti-air Even the ships that would make up today’s core group have very limited a modern high subsonic (assume 500 mph), anti-ship missile that would, It would constantly broadcast the location of the towing vessel and draw missiles both toward the raft and… toward the vessel. To meet this challenge would require more than just perseverance; it would require entirely new strategies. The Swedes built them for $184MM. , The Japanese willingness to essentially throw away its fleet in Ten-Go and its planes and pilots in kamikaze attacks was bred from desperation and military necessity. Available on Fold3.com. Although Okinawa was not the first major joint operation between the Army and Navy in the Pacific (the two had previously cooperated during campaigns in the Aleutians and the Philippines), the massive scale of these operations, the complicated command structure, and the strain placed on both services by the prolonged campaign and mounting casualties, demanded a considerably higher level of cooperation than had hitherto be demonstrated. A flight deck-only in home waters makes sense since the helo can base out of a land base and just lily pad on the ship but in an overseas use, potentially far from any US base, the flight deck, by itself, is useless.Visby has a near-mythical reputation among US naval observers but the reality is a bit different. to production, is there any other source of information that might allow us to "raft"Yep, that could work. I do like the fore/aft redundancy although I'm not sure how extensive that redundancy really is. I understand and, without a doubt, there is much to like about the Visby. S E Morrison's Appendix II to vol XIV of the (more or less "official" Navy History) titled "US Ships Sunk by Enemy Action in the Iwo Jima and Okinawa Campaigns", adds the following destroyer type ships sunk by air attack between "L-Day" at Okinawa (1 Apr) and 30 July to the "Wikipedia" list: I found this picture fascinating.https://m.imgur.com/r/interestingasfuck/kiTaGZ4I cannot imagine a modern vessel standing up to damage in this way. The question then becomes whether sufficient weapons and sensors could fit on a smaller, barge type vessel. I put forth Visby as a relatively cheap ship, cheap enough to be built in numbers, that could take care of itself in an AAW or ASW environment. for additional AA firepower. "it can still operate should Aegis get knocked out or jammed. Is the Navy truly incapable of learning from their mistakes?” Sadly, apparently so.I would limit unmanned drones to surveillance and intel for now. www.navweapons.com has good info on all the oto melara 40mm mounts. “Buster” Campbell. —Richard Hulver, Ph.D. & Martin R. Waldman, Ph.D., historians, NHHC Histories and Archives Division. Given the spherical nature of aerial explosions, 50% of the debris will be coming back at us at high velocities thus rendering Doppler effects confused or useless. Wonder if we even train to recognize our own ships capabilities today, or if diversity training has taken precedence. ships was the high speed, nuclear powered submarine USS Triton which could absolutely minimal. The IJN Yamato, Japan's pride and joy and the largest battleship ever built, sails from the Inland Sea on a suicide mission at Okinawa.  Nimitz also pulled back his criticisms of the Army realizing that they too were made out of frustration from mounting naval losses. Any side shot is significantly more difficult than a head on shot (or tail on) shot. Some of my colleagues at the lab and I had a meeting (aka, a group of computer nerds having lunch in the meeting room with this article broadcast onto the board) and came up with some ideas that you may be interested in. The attacks tested the nerves of even veteran sailors as 26 ships were sunk and another 164 damaged. That's a money saver but it wouldn't fly in the USN and for very good reasons! I think it’s time has come.https://www.lockheedmartin.com/en-us/news/features/history/sea-shadow.html. U.S. If we have more sub tasks than subs then we need to build more subs instead of allowing our sub fleet to dip into the 40s, as we're doing. Same in Libya and Syria where Pantsir seems to have been knocked off a few times....makes one have to at least wonder about Patriot, THAAD and AEGIS a little bit?!? Another unit that would be a perfect match for this vessel is the AN/SLQ-32 (V)7 SEQUP Block III.https://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/36880/the-navy-is-about-to-sail-with-its-next-big-leap-in-shipboard-electronic-warfare-systemsIn the article above, it states “Northrop Grumman's latest iteration of the long-running AN/SLQ-32 Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program (SEWIP) family of electronic warfare systems, which are designed to defend ships against anti-ship missile attacks, provide enhanced situational awareness across the electromagnetic spectrum, and, in some cases, execute other electronic warfare functions, is about to hit the sea.”Start jamming and, as the home-on-jam missiles are closing in, turn off and jig as previously described. So here is one experiment 0% hits fore/aft and 100% broadside. Outstanding analysis. Considering there is no way a war between China and the USA that includes the US striking mainland China that doesn't go nuclear I would say the world will be very interested long before China uses low yield nukes to destroy US satellite swarms. unarmored and weakly built ships that make up today’s fleet. Potter, Nimitz (Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1976), Nimitz, 374. aviators. or landing ship It is believed the photographer was either Seaman Len Schmidt or Harold I. The Okinawa example pointed up the need for massive numbers modern anti-ship missiles are likely to be even more destructive given the One of its radar arrays was, apparently, While the radar pickets acted as the fleet’s sacrificial lambs, the combat air patrols served as its primary defensive weapon against the attacks. I agree that we have serious procurement problems, just have a hard time believing they are that bad. “For example, we should have much more extensive, physically distributed EO/IR sensors tied into the fire control system as well as a separate, technologically dissimilar type of radar as a backup to the Aegis arrays. The normally verbose historian confessed, “Words fail him to do justice to the Sailors” on radar pickets who bore the brunt of the kamikaze attacks and had to daily “strike down the flaming terror.” Seeing the aftermath of the attacks remained fresh in his mind years after he wrote the battle’s history. The Navy’s answer to the kamikaze saturation attacks was to None of these proved nearly as effective as the aerial attacks (they only damaged a few ships at Okinawa), but they were a clear demonstration that the IJN was more than willing to sacrifice its sailors in the final stages of the war. But, unlike WWII, where most of the pickets were pointed towards Japan, Okinawa today would need 360° coverage given the range of today's weapons and the ability to deliver them. engagement and fighter direction assistance. ... 10 ships sunk and 25 ships damaged. Considering the lack of even proper navigation and seamenship of late... "The world wonders?...". act as pickets and outer escorts for carrier and surface groups despite having By comparison, the L3 Harris looks to be only slightly stealthy. If the Navy intends, as they say, to place unmanned vessels  Jermiah Foster, “Franklin III (CV-13), 1944–1964,” Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships: https://www.history.navy.mil/research/histories/ship-histories/danfs/f/franklin-v.html. That's why I've been trying to educate people to the need for 30 escorts or so for a carrier group. Regrettably, these estimates proved to be quite on the mark, with the prolonged land battle enabling the Japanese to launch numerous air attacks that proved even more effective than anticipated. If not, who decides when to turn it on and off? Of course, the pickets would have to be EMP shielded, also!Thanks, that was a good reminder of a nearly forgotten weapon! saturation missile attacks and the US Navy has not devoted any attention to the Again, this reminds us that we’ve completely $$$$$"That's the part that I don't do.  Nimitz to wife, 26 April 1945. mission but were devastated – what does that suggest for today’s unmanned job but could not stop every attacker. but only some of these were ready in time to serve off Okinawa. $$$$$. The Navy’s losses were the Especially as it's not going to be US ships sitting in harbor where they can be raised and medical attention for the crews is nearby.I can easily see China egging on the US till they send at least 4 if not 5 carrier groups to do a freedom of navigation cruise then just smashing them. One famous example was 2016, then Pacific Command Harry Harris had to abandon US' South China Sea actions of two air carrier battle groups because he learned that China had precisely tracked US aircraft carriers. I studied the A-400 when it was being offered (no one bought it and it's gone from the web). On board Wasp (CV-18), for example, a five-deck fire caused by a bomb explosion on 19 March was extinguished within 15 minutes, allowing the ship to resume flight operations after it had been hit. While the The The USS Aaron Ward is an outstanding example and Korea where munition expenditures far exceeded predictions. functions and certainly won’t be properly positioned. By the time this occurred in June, the protracted naval action had exacted a bloody toll, becoming the costliest naval action of the war (both in terms of men and ships). Each attack consisted of hundreds of aircraft. The Battle of Okinawa often evokes images of psychologically spent Soldiers and Marines engaged in a grueling land battle. At Okinawa, When one considers the scale of the logistics at Okinawa it was simply just more of anything that had obtained in any other Pacific engagement, eg.  This flexibility came as a result of improved underway replenishments. Painting, oil on wood, by John Hamilton. Possession of Iwo Jima and Okinawa gave the American military considerable latitude as to how it could conduct the war going forward, but the human cost of these ventures raised serious questions among the public and American civil and military leaders as to the practicality of invading the Japanese home islands. That she was able to remain afloat, let alone steam under her own power to Pearl Harbor less than a day after the grim events of 19 March, is a testament to both her crew’s mental fortitude and the efficiency of their damage control efforts under the most extreme of circumstances. Make the picket/escort a missile 'sponge' by enhancing its radar signature thereby attracting the missiles rather than letting them pass by to attack the core group. I’m pretty sure the Navy hasn’t thought this through. Weapon Density – I don't mean to imply that I think the Visby is perfect. Copy in Admiral Turner Papers, NHHC Archives. Surface combat would no longer be characterized by ship-to-ship engagements, nor for that matter, even air-to-surface engagements like at Midway. There were three from the side and all three hit. Nothing could be further from the truth. provide mutual gun support. This would make the dome smaller and, being phased array, the dome could also redirect radar return.https://asc.army.mil/web/portfolio-item/anmpq-64-sentinel/If it turns out that this unit is not sufficient for scanning, I would place separate, fixed units containing the KuRFS radar. During the course of the battle, Japan We’ll see unimaginably massive expenditures of weapons against us and the pickets were, generally, 50-80 miles from the center point of the defended That's right, it will have submarine escorts (subs to with every carrier group - or, at least, they used to) to clear the path and support the pickets. Inevitable tensions crept into the inter-service team, however, they diminished by the end of the campaign. sea, 368 Allied ships—including 120 amphibious craft—were damaged while another So if this line isn’t moving within five days we’ll get someone here to move it so we can all get out from under these stupid air attacks.” Spruance expressed similar frustrations in a letter written to his former chief of staff the day after New Mexico was hit by a kamikaze. My point is the current 30mm guns with no radar can't even try. You are definitely a fan of the SeaRAM/Phalanx, as am I. the battleship Yamato, a cruiser, and several destroyers. modern guided missile in terms of destructive impact. They would not, however, be using them to conduct conventional air campaign, but rather, to act as human-guided missiles against U.S. forces. Unfortunately, that may require the US to take a good thrubbing. For example, to be truly redundant, both halves should have their own power supplies, separate from each other. warships, and damaged 368 other vessels at Okinawa. When word publicly leaked during the campaign of inter-service quibbling, Nimitz immediately stepped in and put the matter to rest. Of couse it would be good to know about other experiments. no evidence, whatsoever, that the unmanned vessels can effectively carry out usable in an engagement is limited to around four. guarding the Okinawa amphibious invasion fleet. What's needed, AT A MINIMUM, is a 4-carrier group to provide picket support and surface ship defense plus, AT A MINIMUM, another 4-carrier group to provide ground support. In the coming weeks, more than 1,600 ships and 350,000 naval personnel from other task forces under Spruance’s overall command would assemble to form the largest amphibious assault force of World War II. Although the forces involved were under the overall command of Nimitz, CINCPOA, it was Spruance, Fifth Fleet commander, who would actually lead the Central Pacific Force in making the assault. It is estimated that nearly one out of seven naval deaths in the entire war occurred during these two bloody months off Okinawa. This post, and others, as well as history, are demonstrating just why so many escorts are needed.You'll recall I did a post on escorts demonstrating the need for large numbers of escorts and that was without considering dedicated pickets. Sources differ regarding the number of ships sunk by kamikaze aircraft during World War II. We need to alter our ship design philosophy Will the radar always be on? She was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 2 June 1945. The lack of a hangar and embarked helo is also a potential weakness depending on the mission. Initially, a typical demonstrates the consequences of a loss of defensive sensors and fire control Just as astounding to us, today, was the magnitude of the facing supersonic or high subsonic missiles, those are the kinds of distances These are in no particular order. Tired of reality? A missile attack against our ships will be devastating and we need to the center of the defended area. As you recall from previous posts, the Navy intends to reality because it drives our ship design sensor and weapons density, fire involved over 600 ships, not counting hundreds of additional, lesser craft such TRS or downsized AEGIS, around 24 VLS cells, two centerline superstructure-mounted(upnhigh) amidships CIWS, fantail Searam, single 76mm, no sonar or helo facilities. Brilliant article! (4) This is a backup to the Aegis arrays. If land warfare is going on at the time with lives at stake, I would assume the pickets will be on their own. It will be sunk less than one mile offshore in about 70 feet of water, near 16 other sunken ships already covered in marine life. As proof, I've described and documented failure after failure of manufacturer's claims on this blog.Personally, I highly doubt that any gun can intercept a supersonic missile with any significant success. Elsewhere, Lt. Eventually, the number of destroyers and supporting  Spruance to Moore, 13 May 1945. out which places them well beyond any AAW support from the core group. I believe we can build cheaper ships than we do now and even I don't believe we can build a fully tricked out Visby for that price! The 265 US combat ships, alone, nearly equals the size of Forget about future growth, these would have 25yr lifespan, designed to be replaced with then-current and proven tech in 20 yrs!! "mainly due to my brain trying to turn this drone into a ship. So that makes not only more numerous point defense systems, but armor even more relevant. Today, with high subsonic or supersonic missiles, the engagement time for the CAP would be very short, meaning that the effectiveness of the CAP would be limited and they could not be expected to significantly attrite the attacking missiles.
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